After enduring three military conflicts since the early 1980s, sectarian violence, and volatile security conditions nationwide, Iraq is now emerging from a protracted period of instability. Insurgent activity has declined and elections in 2009 and 2010 were, despite some setbacks, viewed as largely successful. With the continued drawdown of American forces and improved security conditions (the two issues that have dominated the public discourse since the most recent military intervention in 2003), the Iraqi government may now turn its attention to other pressing matters. Among those critical matters is strengthening the juvenile justice system. In 2010 Iraqis are presented with a real opportunity to improve the lives and prospects of some of their most vulnerable citizens.