The Islamic Penal Law approved in 2012 has introduced important changes in dealing with crimes committed by people less than 18 years of age, the most important of which is the amendment of Article 91 of this law. In an innovative measure, this article, in addition to the age of majority, also paid attention to age of intellectual (reason) development of the accused, stipulating that “In the case of commission of crimes punishable by Hadd or Qisas (retribution), when adults under eighteen years of age can not appreciate the nature of the crime committed or its legal prohibition, or their intellectual development and maturity are found to be questionable, the punishments provided in this law would be prescribed in view of the age of the perpetrators and the particulars of the case. To determine the development and perfection of reason in an individual, the court may ask for the opinion of a medical doctor or employ any other method it deems appropriate.”
The United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child has published General Comment No. 26 on children’s rights and the environment with a special focus on climate change on 22nd of August 2023.
In this general comment, the Committee emphasizes the urgent need to address the adverse effects of environmental degradation, with a special focus on climate change, on the enjoyment of children’s rights, and clarifies the obligations of States to address environmental harm and climate change. The Committee also explains how children’s rights under the Convention on the Rights of the Child apply to environmental protection, and confirms that children have a right to a clean, healthy and sustainable environment.
When adopted in 1989, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) enshrined, for the first time in international law, the recognition of children as subjects of the full scope of civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights,1 a culmination in the evolution of the concept of childhood and a paradigm shift from the perception of children as the property of their parents. Since then, the Convention became the most ratified international human rights treaty in history and has prompted deep, transformative changes for children across the world, including with support from the United Nations (UN). More children than ever before now have access to health, education, protection, and participation opportunities.
Yet, child rights today are often misunderstood, disregarded, or disputed.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is an important agreement by countries who have promised to protect children’s rights. The Convention on the Rights of the Child explains who children are, all their rights, and the responsibilities of governments. All the rights are connected, they are all equally important and they cannot be taken away from children.
The Guidelines for Action are addressed to the Secretary-General and relevant United Nations agencies and programmes, States parties to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, as regards its implementation, as well as Member States as regards the use and application of the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice